Young Messor queen shedding her wings

Linepithema humile

The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, formerly Iridomyrmex humilis) is native to northern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. It is an invasive species that has been inadvertently introduced by humans in many mediterranean climate areas, including Portugal, Spain, Italy, South Africa, New Zealand, Japan, Easter Island, Australia, Hawaii, and the United States.

■Taxonomy: Dolichoderinae
■Color: dark brown
■Queen: 6 to 12 millimetres
■Worker size: 3 millimetres
■Characteristics: polygyne
Camponotus herculeanus

■Taxonomy: Formicinae
■Color: black with dark brown thorax
■Distribution: Europe
■Nutrition: Honey- or sugar water and insects
■Hibernation: Yes
■Nest building: Build their nest in wood with greater underground areas
Formica sanguinea

Formica sanguinea hunts pupae of other species of ants and rears them into slave workers. In captivity they accept cocoons of the slave species.

■Taxonomy: Formicinae
■Distribution: Europe
■Characteristics: Monomorph
■Color: red-brown, black abdomen and head
■Nest-building: Ants hills
■Hibernation: Yes
■Nutrition: Honeywater, insects
■Air humidity: dry
■Temperature: Room temperature
■Soil conditions: Sand, pebbles, roots, forest litter material
Aphaenogaster senilis

■Taxonomy: Myrmicinae
■Color: Dark brown, black
■Distribution: South western Europe
■Nutrition: Honey or sugar water, insects and seeds
■Hibernation: Yes
■Temperature: 25 - 30 °C
■Humidity: dry
■Nest building: Soil nests, also under stones
Messor barbarus

■Taxonomy: Myrmicinae
■Color: black, sometimes red brown heads
■Size: Queen 14 - 16 mm
■Caste: Monogyn
■Distribution: Europe
■Nutrition: Mostly seeds from different plants (also grass), insects and honeywater
■Temperature: 25 - 30 °C
■Hibernation: Yes (slight) ■Air humidity: Dry climate ■Nest building: Soil nests, loam, pebbles
Formica fusca

Taxonomy: Formicinae
Distribution: Europe
Characteristics: Monomorph, greater colonies polygyn
Size: 5 - 8 mm
Queen colour: glossy black
Workers colour glossy black
Nest-building: Under rotten wood, under stones and in soil
Hibernation: Yes
Nutrition: Honeywater, insects
Temperature: Room temperature, very cold resistant
Pheidole pallidula

■Taxonomy: Subfamily Myrmicinae, Tribe Pheidolini
■Color: light brown, yellow
■Size: Workers: 1.5 - 3 mm, Soldiers: 4 - 5 mm, Queen: 6 - 7 mm
■Distribution: South Europe
■Hibernation: Yes
■Nestbuilding: Soild nests and under stones
■Nutrition: Omnivore (insects, honeywater, some grains)
■Soild condition: Sand, Loam, Stones
Lasius flavus

■Taxonomy: Formicinae
■Size: Workers: 3,5 - 5 mm, Queen: 8 - 9 mm
■Color: shinny black
■Distribution: throughout Europe
■Nutrition: primary honey- or sugar water and later protein in the form of insects
■Hibernation: Yes
■Temperature: 20° - 25° C
■Nest building: Soil nests, builds small soil based mounds between grass stems or under stones
Lista das espécies de formigas conhecidas em Portugal Continental:

Reino: Animalia
Filo: Arthropoda
Classe: Insecta
Ordem: Hymenoptera
Família: Formicidae

Sub-família Dolichoderinae

Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868)

Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander, 1856)
Tapinoma simrothi (observação não confirmada oficialmente)
Tapinoma erraticum (observação não confirmada oficialmente)

Sub-família Formicinae

Camponotus lateralis (Olivier, 1792)
Camponotus piceus (Leach, 1825)
Camponotus cruentatus (Latreille, 1802)
Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798)
Camponotus foreli Emery, 1881
Camponotus pilicornis (Roger, 1859)
Camponotus sylvaticus (Olivier, 1792)
Camponotus gestroi (observação não confirmada oficialmente)
Camponotus micans (observação não confirmada oficialmente)
Camponotus figaro (observação não confirmada oficialmente)

Cataglyphis hispanicus (Emery, 1906)
Cataglyphis cf. ibericus (Emery, 1906)

Formica fusca Linnaeus, 1758
Formica gerardi Bondroit, 1917
Formica rufibarbis Fabricius, 1793
Formica subrufa Roger, 1859
Formica sanguinea Latreille, 1798
Formica funicular (observação não confirmada oficialmente)

Proformica nasuta (Nylander, 1856)

Hypoponera eduardi (observação não confirmada oficialmente)

Lasius flavus (Fabricius, 1782)
Lasius grandis Forel, 1909
Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869)
Lasius piliferus Seifert, 1992
Lasius brunneus (observação não confirmada oficialmente)
Lasius niger (observação não confirmada oficialmente)

Plagiolepis pygmaea (Latreille, 1798)
Plagiolepis schmitzii Forel, 1895

Sub-família Myrmicinae

Crematogaster auberti Emery, 1869
Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier, 1792)
Crematogaster sordidula (Nylander, 1849)

Leptothorax formosus Santschi, 1909
Leptothorax pardoi Tinaut, 1987

Aphaenogaster gibbosa (Latreille, 1798)
Aphaenogaster iberica Emery, 1908
Aphaenogaster senilis Mayr, 1853

Goniomma hispanicum (André, 1883)

Messor barbarus (Linnaeus, 1767)
Messor bouvieri Bondroit, 1918
Messor hispanicus Santschi, 1919
Messor structor (Latreille, 1798)

Pheidole pallidula (Nylander, 1849)

Solenopsis sp.

Tetramorium cf. impurum (Foerster, 1850)
Tetramorium ruginode Stitz, 1917
Tetramorium semilaeve (observação não confirmada oficialmente)
O que vê na imagem? (clique para aumentar)